the Decree from the Muslim World League
In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
"Hold on altogether to the rope that Allah extends to you
The Muslim World League
The Eighth Decree
Regarding Times for Prayers
and Fasting at Extreme Latitudes
Administration of the Fiqh Council
All praise is due to Allah alone, and may mercy and peace be
whom no prophet will postdate, our master and prophet, Muhammad, may
mercy and peace of Allah be upon him, his family, and companions.
In its ninth session, the Fiqh Council deliberated in the
League building in Makkah Al-Mukarramah between the dates of Saturday,
12 Rajab 1406 AH and Saturday, 19 Rajab 1406 AH regarding times for
and fasting at extreme latitudes.
In conformance with the lenient spirit of Islamic Law and the
provided by the Council of Astronomers, the [Fiqh] Council decrees the
- In order to avoid the confusion caused by multiple
methods, each prayer time is described in two ways: the astronomical
phenomenon specified in Islamic Law and the corresponding astronomical
calculation. The latter is expressed in terms of the position of the
sun above or below the horizon. Islamic scholars of prayer times
- Fajr corresponds to the first appearance of a white light
laterally across the horizon. This is referred to as true dawn and
corresponds to when the sun is 18 degrees below the eastern horizon.
- Sunrise corresponds to the appearance of the highest
disk on the eastern horizon, which corresponds to when the sun is 5/6
a degree below the horizon.
- Dhuhr corresponds to the sun passing its zenith - the
reach that day. This corresponds to the shortest shadow of an object
- Asr corresponds to the position of the sun such that the
shadow of an object is equal to the length of the object plus the
of the object's shadow when the sun is at its zenith. The corresponding
angle changes with respect to time and place.
- Maghrib corresponds to the complete disappearance of the
the western horizon. This corresponds to the sun being 5/6 of a degree
below the horizon.
- Isha corresponds to the disappearance of red twilight.
to the sun being 17 degrees below the western horizon.
- It is sufficient to add two [clock] minutes to the times
Maghrib, and Isha, and to subtract two minutes from the times of Fajr
- Extreme latitudes fall into three categories:
- Region 1 is anywhere between latitudes of 45 to 48
Whether drawn-out or shortened, all necessary astronomical phenomena
within a 24 hour period in this region.
- Region 2 is anywhere between latitudes of 48 to 66
Some astronomical phenomena are non-existent during some days of the
in this region, such as the lingering of twilight through the start of
Isha and the adjacency of the end of Maghrib time with the start of
- Region 3 is anywhere between the latitude of 66 north or
corresponding pole. The necessary astronomical phenomena are
for large parts of the year.
- The ruling regarding Region 1 is that its inhabitants must
legally prescribed times for prayers and fast between the appearance of
true dawn and sunset. This is in accordance with Islamic legal texts
prayer and fasting.
- The ruling regarding Region 2 is that the times for Isha
be determined by using the corresponding percentages for these prayers
at the latitude of 45 degrees. For example, if Isha starts after one
of the night has passed at the latitude of 45 degrees, then relative to
the length of the night at the desired location, Isha also starts after
one third of it has passed. The same applies to Fajr.
- The ruling regarding Region 3 is that the times for all
be computed according to their analogues at a latitude of 45 degrees.
24 hours in a day in this region should be divided up into the same
as it is at 45 degrees. For example, if the length of the night at 45
is eight hours, the sun sets at 8:00 pm, and Isha is at 11:00 pm, then
the equivalent should hold for the desired location. If, for example,
is at 2:00 am, then it is the same at the desired location. Fasting
start from this time until the proportioned Maghrib.
This conclusion is based on the analogous situation mentioned in the
hadeeth pertaining to the Dajjal (False Christ),
We said, "Oh Messenger of Allah, how long will he
earth?" He said, "Forty days: a day like a year, then a day like a
then a day like a week..." We said, "Oh Messenger of Allah, in the day
that is like a year, will the prayer of a day be sufficient?" He said,
"No, proportion out the time."
Allah is the Possessor of correctness.
(It was narrated by Abu Dawood in the chapter on massacres.)
May mercy and peace be upon our master Muhammad and all of his family
Dr. Abdullah Umar Naseef
Abdulaziz ibn Abdullah ibn Baz
President of the Fiqh Council
Dr. Talal Umar Bafaqeeh
Reporter of the Islamic Fiqh Council
- Muhammad ibn Jubayr
- Abdullah Aal Abdurrahman Al-Bassam
- Salih ibn Foozan ibn Abdullah Al-Foozan
- Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Subayyil
- Mustafa Ahmad Al-Zarqa'
[Handwritten note:] I opine that the extremes of day and night for
different seasons in Hejaz or the entire Arabian Peninsula form a basis
for measurement of prayer times at extreme latitudes.
- Muhammad Mahmood Al-Sawwaf
- Salih ibn Uthaymayn
- Muhammad Rasheed Kabbani
- Muhammad Al-Shathili Al-Nayfir
- Abu Bakr Joomy
- Dr. Ahmad Fahmy Abu Sinnah
- Muhammad Al-Habeeb ibn Al-Khojah
- Dr. Bakr Abu Zayd
- Yusuf Al-Qaradhawi
- Muhammad Salim ibn Abdulwadood
- Abu Al-Hasan Ali Al-Hasani Al-Nadawi
From the Council of Astronomers:
- Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hawari
The following were absent from this session: his excellency Sheikh
Al-Hashimi, his highness Marshal Mahmood Sheet Khattab, his excellency
Sheikh Hasanayn Muhammad Makhloof, and his excellency Sheikh Mabrook